National Stadium, The Main Stadium for the 2008 Olympic Games
Beijing, China
Competition 2002–2003, project 2003–2005, realization 2003–2008

The National Stadium, a new kind of public space for Beijing
The National Stadium is situated on a gentle rise in the centre of the Olympic complex to the north of Beijing. Its location is predefined by the master plan. All other urban and architectural decisions were initiated by our competition project and subsequently implemented in our construction project. Our most important principle throughout has been to develop an architecture that will continue to be functional following the Games in 2008, in other words, to create a new kind of urban site that will attract and generate public life in this part of Beijing. Significantly, the Chinese themselves nicknamed the stadium "Bird‘s Nest" in the very early stages of the project, thereby essentially assimilating it as their own, before it had even left the drawing board.

From the distance, the stadium looks like a gigantic collective shape, like a vessel whose undulating rim echoes the rising and falling ramps for spectators inside the stadium. From this distant perspective, one can clearly distinguish not only the rounded shape of the building but also the grid of the load-bearing structure, which encases the building, but also appears to penetrate it. What is seen from afar as a geometrically clear-cut and rational overall configuration of lines, evaporates the closer one comes, finally separating into huge separate components. The components look like a chaotic thicket of supports, beams and stairs, almost like an artificial forest.

In this Piranesian space, people get together in restaurants, bars, hotels and shops, or on the platforms and the crisscrossing horizontal, diagonal and vertical paths of access. This space, surrounding the interior of the stadium, is façade, structure, decoration and public space all in one. It is the link between the city outside and the interior of the stadium and is, at the same time, an autonomous, urban site. Herein lays the real potential of the project; it aims to be more than an Olympic sports arena for one single, admittedly unique occasion. This area between inside and outside affords the opportunity to create a new kind of urban and public place – even more so in view of the fact that people in Beijing love public life and are experienced users of public space. Sports, games, later rock concerts and other activities will, of course, dominate the use of the interior, while the new park on the plinth will invite people to stop a while and relax; the really novel feature of the project is clearly the transitional space between interior and exterior. This is the space that will inspire people to move about, to be together and to enjoy each other’s company.

The plinth
The geometries of the plinth and stadium merge into one element, like a tree and its roots. Pedestrians flow on a lattice of smooth slate walkways that extend from the structure of the stadium. The spaces between walkways provide amenities for the stadium visitor: sunken gardens, stone squares, bamboo groves, mineral hill landscapes, and openings into the plinth itself. Gently, almost imperceptibly, the ground of the city rises and forms a plinth for the stadium. The entrance to the stadium is therefore slightly raised, providing a panorama of the entire Olympic complex.

Structure = façade = roof = space
The spatial effect of the stadium is novel and radical, and yet simple and of an almost archaic immediacy. Its appearance is pure structure. Façade and structure are identical. The structural elements mutually support each other and converge into a spatial grid-like formation, in which façades, stairs, bowl structure and roof are integrated. To make the roof weatherproof, the spaces in the structure of the stadium are filled with a translucent membrane, just as birds stuff the spaces between the woven twigs of their nests with soft filler. Since all of the facilities – restaurants, suites, shops and restrooms – are self-contained units, it is largely possible to do without a solid, enclosed façade. This allows natural ventilation of the stadium, which is the most important aspect of the stadium’s sustainable design.

The bowl
The stadium is conceived as a large collective vessel, which makes a distinctive and unmistakable impression both when it is seen from a distance and from close up. Inside the stadium, an evenly constructed bowl-like shape serves to generate crowd excitement and drive athletes to outstanding performances. To create a smooth and homogeneous appearance, the stands have minimal interruption and the acoustic ceiling hides the structure in order to focus attention on the spectators and the events on the field. The human crowd forms the architecture.
Herzog & de Meuron, 2007


Herzog & de Meuron Team:
Partners: Jacques Herzog, Pierre de Meuron, Stefan Marbach
Project Architects: Linxi Dong (Associate), Mia Hägg (Associate), Tobias Winkelmann (Associate), Thomas Polster
Project Team: Peter Karl Becher, Alexander Berger, Felix Beyreuther, Marcos Carreno, Xudong Chen, Simon Chessex, Massimo Corradi, Yichun He, Volker Helm, Claudia von Hessert, Yong Huang, Kasia Jackowska, Uta Kamps, Hiroshi Kikuchi, Martin Krapp, Hemans Lai, Emily Liang, Kenan Liu, Donald Mak, Carolina Mojto, Christoph Röttinger, Roland Rossmaier, Luciano Rotoli, Mehrdad Safa, Roman Sokalski, Heeri Song, Christoph Weber, Thomasine Wolfensberger, Pim van Wylick, Camillo Zanardini, Xiaolei Zhang

Herzog & de Meuron Team Competition Phase:

Partners: Jacques Herzog, Pierre de Meuron, Harry Gugger, Stefan Marbach
Project Architects: Jean Paul Jaccaud
Project Team: Béla Berec, Antonio Branco, Simon Chessex, Massimo Corradi, Gustavo Espinoza, Hans Focketyn, Andreas Fries, Patric Heuberger, Mia Hägg, Daniel Pokora, Christopher Pannett, Mehrdad Safa, Philipp Schaerer, Heeri Song, Adrien Verschuere, Antje Voigt

Competition Design Consortium:
Herzog & de Meuron, Basel, Switzerland; Arup; China Architectural Design & Research Group

In Collaboration with:
Ai Weiwei, Beijing, China; Chinese Artist and Curator, Artistic Advisor

National Stadium Co. Ldt, Beijing, China

Competition Organizer:
Beijing Municipal Planning Commission, Beijing, China

Competition authorized by:

Beijing Municipal Government; Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad (BOCOG), Beijing, China

Design Consortium: Herzog & de Meuron, Basel, Switzerland; Ove Arup & Partners Hong Kong Ltd., Kowloon, Hong Kong, China; China Architectural Design & Research Group, Beijing, China
Architect Planning: Herzog & de Meuron, Basel, Switzerland
Architect Construction: China Architectural Design & Research Group, Beijing, China
Structural Engineering: Ove Arup & Partners Hong Kong Ltd., Kowloon, Hong Kong, China; China Architectural Design & Research Group, Beijing, China
Sports Consultant: Arup Sport, London, United Kingdom
HVAC, Plumbing, Mechanical, Electrical Engineering: Ove Arup & Partners Hong Kong Ltd., Kowloon, Hong Kong, China; China Architectural Design & Research Group, Beijing, China
Landscape Design: Herzog & de Meuron, Basel, Switzerland; China Architectural Design & Research Group, Beijing, China

Specialist / Consulting:

Cladding Design Consultant: R + R Fuchs, Munich, Germany
Geology: Beijing Survey Design and Research Institute, Beijing, China
Civil, Traffic Engineering: China Architectural Design & Research Group, Beijing, China
Building Physics, Fire, Ligthing, Acustics Protection: Ove Arup & Partners Hong Kong Ltd., Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
China Architectural Design & Research Group, Beijing, China
Signage: New Identity Ltd., Basel, Switzerland
Supervision: CIECC Engineering & Construction Project Management Corp., Beijing, China

Building Data:

Site Area: 20.29 hectares (202,900sqm) / 2,184,000sqft
Building Footprint: Plinth: approx. 120,000sqm / 1,291,668sqft; Stadium vessel: 69,729sqm / 750,556sqft
Building Dimensions: Maximum span length N-S: 320m / 1,050ft; Maximum span width E-W: 297m / 975ft; Maximum height: 69m / 226ft (69m above pitch level)
Gross Floor Area: 258,000sqm / 2,777,089sqft

- The primary structure of the roof is independent of the bowl structure and is conceived as a series of steel space frames wrapped around the bowl. The outer facade is inclined at approx. 13 degrees to the vertical. The overall depth of the structure is 12 m. The total steel tonnage is 41,875 t; 36km of unwrapped steel length.
- The roof is saddle-shaped. Spaces between the steel members are filled with ETFE foil (38’000 sqm single stressed foil) on the upper surface and an acoustic membrane (PTFE fabric) on the lower surface; this second layer reflects and absorbs sound to maintain the atmosphere in the stadium.
- The bowl superstructure consists of in-situ concrete. Priority for the design of the seating bowl was to get spectators as close as possible to the action with clear sight lines.
- Sight lines and spectator viewing: The almost circular footprint optimizes the viewing and atmosphere by bringing all the spectators as close to the action as possible.
- Ventilation: The stadium bowl is naturally ventilated.

- FOP (Field of Play)
- Warm-Up Field
- Functional Rooms during Olympic Games
- Post Olympic Commercial Facilities (Restaurants, Commercial Areas Plinth, Hotel, Superior Club...)

Usage of the stadium:
Olympic Games 2008:
- Opening and Closing Ceremony
- 1991 Soccer games
- 1998 Athletic events
Future Usage:
- Paralympics 2008
- Local soccer games
- Athletic events
- Concerts
- Hotel in the north of the stadium
- Commercial Areas (Shopping Mall) in the Plinth, south of the stadium (below ground), planned completion 2009


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Vol. No. 152/153, Madrid, El Croquis, 2010.

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Edited by: David J. Brown. London, Corporate Communications Group Arup, 2009.

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